Until today. Here, Walter Watson offers a new interpretation of the lost second book of Aristotle'sPoetics. Based on Richard Janko's philological reconstruction of the epitome, a summary first recovered in and hotly contested thereafter, Watson mounts a compelling philosophical argument that places the statements of this summary of the Aristotelian text in their true context. Watson renders lucid and complete explanations of Aristotle's ideas about catharsis, comedy, and a summary account of the different types of poetry, ideas that influenced not only Cicero's theory of the ridiculous, but also Freud's theory of jokes, humor, and the comic.
Finally, more than two millennia after it was first written, and after five hundred years of scrutiny, Aristotle'sPoetics is more complete than ever before. Here, at last, Aristotle's lost second book is found again. Wordery is one of the UK's largest online booksellers. With millions of satisfied customers who enjoy low prices on a huge range of books, we offer a reliable and trusted service and consistently receive excellent feedback. For example, modern technology does not render the Poetics obsolete. Cinematography is a poetic art of spectacle within the Aristotelian sense.
Thus the remarks on comic dancing can best be understood by watching Charlie Chaplin films, and the poetic possibilities of the satyr play can be recognised in a classic Western such as High Noon. As an exercise in bringing ancient philosophy to life for the YouTube generation, this is pretty hard to beat. We welcome your comments; please send via our social media. The decoration of the stage is the major part of the spectacle.
The Spectacle is theatrical effect presented on the stage. But spectacle also includes scenes of physical torture, loud lamentations, dances, colourful garments of the main characters, and the beggarly or jocular appearance of the subordinate characters or of the fool on the stage. These are the six constituent parts of tragedy.
Aristotle argues that, among the six formative elements, the plot is the most important element. He writes in The Poetics. By plot Aristotle means the arrangement of incidents. Incidents mean action, and tragedy is an imitation of actions, both internal and external. That is to say that it also imitates the mental processes of the dramatic personae.
In answering a question once he said that a tragedy could be written without a character but not without a plot. Though his overstatement on plot, he accepts that without action there cannot be a tragedy. The ends we pursue in life, our happiness and our misery, all take the form of action.
Tragedy is written not merely to imitate man but to imitate man in action. That is, according to Aristotle, happiness consists in a certain kind of activity rather than in a certain quality of character. Lastly, Aristotle notes that forming a solid plot is far more difficult than creating good characters or diction. Having asserted that the plot is the most important of the six parts of tragedy, he ranks the remainder as follows, from most important to least: Character, Thought, Diction, Melody, and Spectacle.
Character reveals the individual motivations of the characters in the play, what they want or don't want, and how they react to certain situations, and this is more important to Aristotle than thought, which deals on a more universal level with reasoning and general truths. The ideal tragic hero, according to Aristotle, should be, in the first place, a man of eminence. Further, the hero should not only be eminent but also basically a good man, though not absolutely virtuous. The hero should neither be a villain nor a wicked person for his fall, otherwise his death would please and satisfy our moral sense without generation the feelings of pity, compassion and fear.
Therefore, the ideal tragic hero should be basically a good man with a minor flaw or tragic trait in his character. The entire tragedy should issue from this minor flaw or error of judgment. The fall and sufferings and death of such a hero would certainly generate feelings of pity and fear. The characteristics of Tragic Hero According to Aristotle, in a good tragedy, character supports plot.
By good character, Aristotle means that they should be: i True to the self ii True to type iii True to life iv Probable and yet more beautiful than life. The tragic hero having all the characteristics mentioned above, has, in addition, a few more attributes.
In this context Aristotle begins by the following observation, 1. A good man — coming to bad end. Its shocking and disturbs faith 2. A bad man — coming to good end.
A bad man — coming to bad end. A rather good man — coming to bad end. Thus the ideal Tragic Hero must be an intermediate kind of a person- neither too virtuous nor too wicked. His misfortune excites pity because it is out of all proportion to his error of judgement, and his over all goodness excites fear for his doom. Thus, he is a man with the following attributes: He should be a man of mixed character, neither blameless nor absolutely depraved.
His misfortune should follow from some error or flaw of character; short of moral taint. He must fall from height of prosperity and glory. The protagonist should be renowned and prosperous, so that his change of fortune can be from good to bad. This change occurs not as the result of vice, but of some great error or frailty in a character. Such a plot is most likely to generate pity and fear in the audience. The ideal tragic hero should be an intermediate kind of a person, a man not preeminently virtuous and just yet whose misfortune is brought upon him not by vice or depravity but by some error of judgement.
Let us discuss this error of judgement in following point. The meaning of Hamartia?
Choose the right option. The unity of action: a play should have one single plot or action to sustain the interest of the spectators and it can also lead him to proper purgation.
The unity of time: the action in a play should not exceed the single revolution of the sun. The unity of place: a play should cover a single physical space and should not attempt to compress geography, nor should the stage represent more than one place. These three principles are called unities, and the Three unities were unity of action, place and time. Let us understand them. The combination of incidents which are the action of the play, should be one — one story told, which is not to say it has to be about only one person, since characters are not in the centre of the tragedy, but the action itself is.
He is against the plurality of action because it weakens the tragic effect. Number of incidents should be connected to each other in such a way that they must be conducive to one effect. The Unity of Action limits the supposed action to a single set of incidents which are related as cause and effect, "having a beginning, middle, and an end.
No subplots, no characters who do not advance the action. What takes place should have nothing irrational about it, but if this is unavoidable, such events should have taken place outside of the drama enacted. As for the length of the play, Aristotle refers to the magnitude called for, a grandness indeed, but one which can be easily seen in its entirety — in the aspect of length, than, one that can easily be remembered. Aristotle meant that the length of time represented in the play should be ideally speaking the actual time passing during its presentation.
We should keep in our minds that it is a suggestion i. According to the Unity of Place, the setting of the play should have one place. Aristotle never mentioned the Unity of Place at all. The doctrine of the three unities, which has figured so much in literary criticism since the Renaissance, cannot be laid to his account. He is not the author of it; it was foisted on him by the Renaissance critics of Italy and France.
Aristotle uses the word in his definition of tragedy in chapter —VI of Poetics, and there has been much debate on exactly what he meant. His theory of Catharsis consists in the purgation or purification of the excessive emotions of pity and fear. Witnessing the tragedy and suffering of the protagonist on the stage, such emotions and feelings of the audience are purged. The purgation of such emotions and feelings make them relieved, and they emerge as better human beings than they were.
It should be remembered that Plato, his master, had attacked poetry in general including tragedy from moral and philosophical points of view. To quote F. Poetry, said Plato, encourages men to be hysterical and uncontrolled. On the contrary, answers his pupil, it makes them less, not more, emotional by giving a periodic healthy outlet to their feelings. His Catharsis forms the most important part of his concept of tragedy as a positive, not pessimistic, drama which leaves wholesome effect, not mere disturbance, in the minds of the spectators.
Let us quote F. Inevitably we think of purgatives and complete evacuations of water products; and then outraged critics ask why our emotions should be so ill-treated. The theory is as old as the school of Hippocrates that on a due balance … of these humours depend the health of body and mind alike. Lucas To translate Catharsis simply as purgation today is misleading owing to the change of meaning which the word has undergone.
The theory of humours is outdated in the medical science. It is no longer what Aristotle had in mind. But such translation, as F. The passions to be moderated are those of pity and fear. The pity and fear to be moderated is, again, of specific kinds. There can never be an excess in the pity that results into a useful action. But there can be too much of pity as an intense and helpless feeling, and there can be also too much of self-pity which is not a praise-worthy virtue.
The Catharsis or moderation of such forms of pity ought to be achieved in the theatre or otherwise when possible, for such moderation keeps the mind in a healthy state of balance.